To master finishing, you need to understand basic terminology.
AAll technical fields have their own vocabulary. You will have a hard time mastering any technical field without understanding its vocabulary. Here are some of the more commonly used finishing terms and their meanings.
Sealer (sanding sealant) it is the first coat of any finish. The first coat penetrates, dries and seals the pores so that the next coat of finish (or any other liquid) has a hard time penetrating the wood. The sealant coating also blocks the raised wood fibers in an upright position, making the surface appear rough. To achieve a smooth final finish, the sealant layer must be sanded before applying additional coats. Special sanding sealants are
made for hard-to-sand alkyd lacquers and paints. Sanding sealants do not clog sandpaper as easily as these finishes.
to end it is a substance that changes from liquid to solid after being applied to wood. The purpose of a finish is to protect the wood and improve its appearance. By adding a dye to a finish (usually called a binder in this situation), you can create a stain, polish, toner, or paint.
Finishing the film is any finish that can be built (by repeated applications) on one or more hard, thick layers on top of the wood. The key requirement for a film finish is that it must dry well. This is in contrast to so-called “penetrating” finishes, such as oil, which do not dry out very much. The alkyd and polyurethane paint, shellac, lacquer, water-based finish and catalyzed finishes (in two parts) are all film finishes.
washcoat is any diluted finish with two or more parts thinner to partially seal the wood and prevent uneven penetration of stains (stains) on soft woods such as pine and fine-grained hardwoods such as cherry and birch. So-called wood conditioners are oil or varnish washes. To be effective, these (and all) wash layers must be allowed to dry completely before applying a stain. It is also possible to use a washcoat between staining steps with minimal build to prevent colors from spreading
Thinner (white spirit, naphtha, paint thinner, alcohol, water) is any evaporating liquid that can be used to dilute a finish, stain, polish, or pore filler for easier application.
Solvent (white spirit, naphtha, lacquer thinner, alcohol, water) is an evaporating liquid that dissolves a dry finish, stain, polish, or pore filler. Often a solvent for a solid is also the diluent for that substance in liquid form.
sheen is the degree of gloss in a dry finish. Most film finishes dry to a glossy finish unless flattening agents (solid particles that reduce gloss) are added. Semi-gloss, satin, matte and flat paints, lacquers and water-based finishes have added flattening agents. These finishes must be mixed before use to suspend flattening agents.
Macchia change the color of the wood. There are two types of dyes used in stains: pigment and dye. The pigment particles are opaque and resemble colored earth. They settle on the bottom of the jar and must be mixed in suspension before use. When applied to wood, the pigment settles in cavities, such as pores and sanding scratches, large enough to hold it and stays there after the excess stain is removed. Built on the wood, the pigment darkens the wood like paint. To bond the pigment particles to the wood, a binder (oil, varnish, varnish or water-based finish) must be included in the stain. The dye is transparent. It dissolves rather than suspends in the liquid. Once dissolved, the dye remains in solution. It can be combined with a binder or simply dissolved in a liquid and applied.
Nail varnish it’s a stain that has been made thick and creep resistant so it stays where you put it, even on vertical surfaces. The gel stain, for example, makes a good frosting. You can use a glaze to darken or change the color tone of the wood after the wood has been sealed. You can leave a polish in the grooves of carvings, turnings and moldings to give the appearance of time and three-dimensional depth. You can blend a nail polish to highlight certain areas, such as the center of the cabinet doors. Or, using special glass tools, you can create patterns in an enamel that resemble wood grain or marble. When the polish is dry, protect it from scratching by applying one or more coats of transparent film.
Pore filler it is essentially an enamel with silica (fine sand) added to provide bulk. Pore filler is used to produce a flat mirror effect by filling the pores of porous woods such as sawn oak, mahogany and walnut prior to applying a film finish. Pore filler does not stain well, so pigment should be added before application. You can apply pore putty directly to raw wood to fill and color in one step, or you can apply a different colored putty to a sealed (and stained) surface to highlight pores, as I did in the right half of the panel.
tonic it is a finish, usually lacquer, with dye or pigment added and sprayed. To provide better control, dilute to six finer parts. The toner adds color in very thin layers without penetrating the wood. The toner can be used to change or adjust a color after the wood has been sealed.
Shading spot is a toner used to modify or adjust the color of some parts of the wood without affecting other parts. Shading stains can be used to blend sapwood with heartwood and to highlight certain parts, such as the center of cabinet doors, darkening the surrounding areas.
Rubbing and polishing is the procedure used to level the surface of the final finishing coat and to increase or decrease the gloss. Various abrasives are used, including fine sandpaper, steel wool, and abrasive compounds. Sandpaper removes dust nibs, orange peel, brush marks and other surface imperfections. Steel wool and abrasive compounds (fine abrasive powders in a liquid or paste) increase or decrease the luster.